Over 100 FREE Online Calculators

Thursday, February 24, 2011

Arizona scam to hide obama identity in next election, SB 1308 is unconstitutional

Arizona Senate Bill 1308 Defines Dual Citizens As Natural Born Citizens.

SB 1308 is unconstitutional because it would render the natural born citizen clause (from Article 2 Section 1) superfluous.

"Arizona had a nice dog and pony show there for awhile, but it’s all bunk." – Leo Donofrio

"America is being scrubbed." – Leo Donofrio
Leo Donofrio, Esq.

BEWARE: Arizona Senate Bill 1308 Defines Dual Citizens As Natural Born Citizens. Leo Donofrio Atty

Arizona Senate Bill 1308 passed out of committee yesterday by an 8-5 vote. This bill is a cleverly disguised attempt to protect President Obama from eligibility scrutiny. It does this by declaring persons born with dual citizenship as natural born citizens. But it does this in a very sneaky manner.

That’s right. Arizona has now passed out of committee a bill which states that persons born with dual citizenship are natural born citizens of the United States. This same bill is being considered by all states party to the compact.

So infamous congratulations to the 8 votes in Arizona who passed this unconstitutional bill to the full Senate floor. They’ve just declared those born as dual citizens eligible to be Commander In Chief of the US Armed Forces.

The Arizona Republic completely failed to mention this incredible turn of events in their report:

“Late Tuesday, the committee advanced two of the bills, becoming the first state legislative committee in the nation to pass legislation intended to challenge the practice of granting citizenship to children born in the U.S. to illegal immigrants.

Committee members voted 8-5 to approve a controversial package of bills, which would challenge the 14th Amendment interpretation about citizenship.”

This so called “compact” is being pushed by a conglomerate of states, and it looks like it’s being done to protect Obama. SB 1308 declares:




As used in this compact, “subject to the jurisdiction of the United States” has the meaning that it bears in section 1 of the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution, namely that the person is a child of at least one parent who owes no allegiance to any foreign sovereignty, or a child without citizenship or nationality in any foreign country.



…A person who is born subject to the jurisdiction of the United States is a natural born United States citizen.

Article II defines a person… “born subject to the jurisdiction of the United States” … as … “a child born to at least one parent who owes no allegiance to any foreign sovereignty“.

Article III declares that… “A person who is born subject to the jurisdiction of the United States is a natural born United States citizen.”

Sneaky bastards all around. When the relevant section of Article II is read in conjunction with the relevant section of Article III, you have a complete declaration that a person born of one citizen parent is a “natural born United States citizen”.

According to that definition, a person born with dual citizenship is also a “natural born United States citizen”.


Anchor babies will not be eligible for US citizenship according to this bill, but Obama will be eligible to be POTUS. Looks like a deal was struck to protect Obama by attacking the citizenship of children born on US soil to illegal immigrant parents.

Apparently, the US citizenship of anchor babies is being sacrificed to protect Obama from competing eligibility legislation – such as Arizona HB 2544 – which does, in fact, require Presidential candidates to prove they have never owed allegiance to a foreign nation.

Arizona HB 2544


SB 1308 is unconstitutional because it would render the natural born citizen clause (from Article 2 Section 1) superfluous. That is not allowed according to the famous SCOTUS decision, Marbury v. Madison, wherein Chief Justice Marshal stated:

‘It cannot be presumed that any clause in the constitution is intended to be without effect; and therefore such construction is inadmissible, unless the words require it.’

If the 14th Amendment defined “natural born citizen” for the purposes of POTUS eligibility, then the nbc clause in Article 2 Section 1 would be rendered meaningless.

If the framers of the 14th Amendment had sought to declare all 14th Amendment citizens to be “natural born citizens” then that’s exactly what the 14th Amendment would say.

But it doesn’t.

The 14th Amendment – by its very own text – defines who are “citizens”, but it does not define who is a “natural born citizen”. Elsewhere in the Constitution, the word “citizen” was used to define those who are eligible to be Representatives and Senators. But the word “citizen” was not used to define those eligible to be POTUS. For that the framers demanded one be a “natural born citizen”.

The 14th Amendment does not use the words “natural born”. The framers could have included those words in the 14th Amendment, but they chose not to.

The compact between the states referenced in Arizona SB 1308 attempts to rewrite the 14th Amendment by adding the words “natural born” to it.

Such may only be accomplished by the Constitutional amendment process. This compact does not meet that standard.

In conclusion, I leave you with the words of John Bingham, one of the people who drafted the 14th Amendment:

“…every human being born within the jurisdiction of the United States of parents not owing allegiance to any foreign sovereignty is, in the language of your Constitution itself, a natural-born citizen.”

Parents. Plural. Not one parent. Two. Two parents not owing allegiance to any foreign sovereignty. Mr. Bingham would know more about the intent of the drafters of the 14th Amendment than anyone alive today… seeing as how Mr. Bingham wrote the 14th Amendment.

But hey, who cares about facts? Who cares about the text of the 14th Amendment? This is America. The Constitution is what people say it is, not what it actually says for itself. Welcome to the living Constitution… and the dying of the USA.

Leo Donofrio, Esq.

(Sneaky bastards is right Leo. Thanks for the heads up about another scam to get obama on the ballot even though he can't provide any documentation validating his US citizenship. The natural born question is almost moot because you must be a citizen before you can be a natural born citizen. Up to this point obama has provided nothing that can be verified to validate his US citizenship. Nothing.) Story Reports

2 main facts about the "certification of live birth" the obama campaign put on the internet

Leo Donofrio Additional Comments:

Mr. Donofrio, is there ANY WAY to get some Arizonans to enforce ARS 16-311?

I have to be honest when someone asks, “is this hopeless too”. It’s hopeless… yup. Nothing will be done. I started writing this blog,natural born citizen, again because I saw state legislatures acting to protect their ballots from unconstitutional candidates. The fiasco I just witnessed with regard to Arizona SB 1308 took the wind right out of me. I do not believe HB 2544 was ever intended as anything more than a chess move leading to 1308. I’m sick about it, really sick.

This appears to have been well thought out and deals were made behind doors… somebody bartered anchor baby citizenship to protect Obama. And the language used was so evasive that it looked like it was designed to check Obama’s credentials and dual citizenship, but it does neither. It doesn’t even require to see his COLB let alone a long form BC and it defines a person born to only one citizen parent as nbc. Wolf in sheeps clothing.-Leo

The situation in Hawaii is beyond Twilight Zone, probably by intention but Im just not sure. – Leo

(Be Careful What You Wish For, you just might get it was the Twilight Zone deconstruction of the meaning of an idea.

Deconstruction (or deconstructionism) is an approach which pursues the meaning of a text to the point of exposing the supposed contradictions and internal oppositions upon which it is founded—supposedly showing that those foundations are irreducibly complex, unstable, or impossible.

"Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. Its apparently-solid ground is no rock, but thin air."
J. Hillis Miller

The Hawaii "twilight zone" deconstruction exposing contradictions, internal oppositions etc and has exposed obama's claim of US citizenship that has already dismantled itself.

Leo is right again Hawaii is in the "twilight zone" of exposing the flawed logic of a valid obama certification of live birth. Hawaii continues the twilight zone deconstruction approach pursuing the meaning of the text, WHERE'S THE BIRTH CERTIFICATE?

Hawaii has deconstructed obama's "birth certificate" and shown it to have been conjured up out of thin air.) Story Reports

Do you have any comment on the Texas bill authored by Leo Berman? The bill simply asks a candidate to present a long form birth certificate.

ed. I think it actually only requires an “original birth certificate”. There’s wiggle room there, but even that wont pass. Nobody is going to ask Obama for anything, not even a COLB. It’s not gonna happen. – leo

Naturalized covers naturalized by oath or naturalized-at-birth: Under US Code 1401 it has a section called “Born Citizens” under the total umbrella of naturalized Citizens. Naturalized just means via statute or treaty, and it includes naturalized-at-birth or “born citizens” and naturalized by oath. But the 2 US Citizen/born on US soil permutation is the only one omitted from US Code 1401, and rightly so as that is the definition of NBC, and it is not a naturalized citizen.

This is a very good point. The US code lists all types of paths to citizenship but it does not list “born in the US to “parents” who are citizens”. This is because such a person is a natural born citizen and no statute or Amendment is necessary to make one a US citizen.-leo


ed. Kill the caps Ken. It’s considered bad netiquette. As to the content of your comment, I think that all federal reserve notes are not Constitutional money and that more than anything will eventually lead to the inevitable destruction of the dollar. No President has done anything to change this, other than perhaps JFK… and we all know how that story ended.- Leo

U.S. Dept of State Foreign Affairs Manual~
Presidential Eligibility:

” a natural born Citizen pursuant to a statute is not necessarily one for Constitutional purposes”

What’s the ” Constitutional purpose” for a ‘natural born Citizen’? Gee, … I can’t think of too many (lol)

ed. I forgot about that. Good one. Leo

Leo, do you think the ‘vital stats’ of Obama will only, eventually come out once he is out of office and therefore power?

If eligibility bills for the next election are passed and enacted, there will undoubtedly be suits. That of course is ironic if Obama has nothing to worry about … but my question remains do you think it will there will then be a challenge and SCOTUS will finally take it?

I’m still skeptical about the “reconferencing” of the Hollister case on March 4th.


ed. No state will pass a bill that even requires Obama to show a real COLB from Hawaii. That’s my prediction. Obama won’t even be required to show his COLB to the SOS of even one state because that would make it a public document. And nobody will see that document in this, or any other lifetime. That’s my prediction after seeing what Arizona tried to pull with the bait and switch between the real birther bill that Burgess instituted and SB 1308. Arizona had a nice dog and pony show there for awhile, but it’s all bunk. – Leo

ed. If the comments attributed to Burgess at this blog, natural born, are accurate, and I have no reason to believe they aren’t, HB 2544 is dead and dusted.

Furthermore, I am comfortable with the following prediction – NOT ONE BILL REQUIRING POTUS CANDIDATES TO SUPPLY ANY FORM OF US CITIZENSHIP DOCUMENTATION WILL BE PASSED. You won’t even get to see Obama’s real COLB. The photocopy of the COLB that has become well known has never been shown to any election official and it never will be so shown. That’s my opinion.

What just happened with SB 1308 in Arizona is the scariest damn thing I’ve seen yet in this fight. All that language in 1308 about birth certificates and COLB etc., none of it has any meaning in the bill. None of it. This compact was cleverly designed to look as if it had some teeth while it’s really support for Obama at the expense of anchor baby citizenship. Why does that not surprise me? The Constitution is confetti.
– leo

(If what you say is true Leo, and I do believe it is, our government and especially our "president" is lawless. My question to you is what should Americans do to maintain our liberty and freedom?) Story Reports

Don't get your hopes up with the Hollister case. best of luck to them, but it appears that the SCOTUS failed to issue a judgment on the motion and will correct that error with a one line denial as with all other cases before them on this issue. I would be happy to eat my words on this one, but will not have to. – Leo

Wa McCain was born on a military installation?

ed. I have not seen any evidence McCain was born on a military installation, but even if he was, he’s still not eligible.

U.S. State Department policy (as codified in the department­’s Foreign Affairs Manual) at 7 FAM 1114 (c)(1) reads:

“Despite widespread popular belief, U.S. military installati­ons abroad and U.S. diplomatic or consular facilities are not part of the United States within the meaning of the 14th Amendment. A child born on the premises of such a facility is not subject to the jurisdicti­on of the United States and does not acquire U.S. citizenshi­p by reason of birth.” - Leo

(Leo is correct again, johm mccain is also not a US citizen. Because he is also not a naturalized citizen. He is in fact an illegal alien. Mccain has indicated he was born in Colon Panama and has a birth certificate.

John McCain: Citizen of Panama At Birth

Obama has indicated he was born in Hawaii and has a "birth certificate". Mccain's birth certificate can be verified. It indicates he was born out side of the canal zone in Panama.

Obama's "birth certificate" can't be verified if he was born inside or outside of Hawaii because it can't be verified as to the hospital he was born in nor the doctors name.

Mccain is not a US citizen according to his own birth certificate.

Obama has a short form forged certification of live birth on the web that can't be verified and that he himself has never claimed as his.

Obama is not a US citizen because he has no birth certificate that can be verified as real.) Story Reports

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Pod cast explains the price of oil and what is going to happen

A unique monetary arrangement was formalized in June 1974 by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, establishing the U.S.-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation. The U.S. Treasury and the New York Federal Reserve would ‘allow’ the Saudi central bank to buy U.S. Treasury bonds with Saudi petrodollars. Likewise, London banks would handle eurozone-based international oil transactions, loan these revenue via “Eurobonds” to oil importing countries. The debt and interest from these loans would then flow to the dollar denominated payments to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), thereby completing the recycling of surplus petrodollars back to the Federal Reserve.

Lindsey Williams returns to follow up on information he revealed about the price of oil and Middle East turmoil on the Alex Jones Show This pod cast explains the price of oil and what is going to happen.

Video Exposes Obama Citizenship FRAUD


2-minute video destroys obama birth certificate fraud.
The FIRST EIGHT SECONDS of this video buries your rabid liberal media in their own lies.

You were not born in Hawaii. You are not a US citizen. Your FORGED BIRTH CERTIFICATE, fabricated by Annenberg Factcheck, proves you are a liar, a fraud, an imposter, and an illegal alien.

Mr. Obama - or whoever you are - you have had seven years to prove who you are, and you refused to do so.

Meet the only 2 people to ever "examine" Obama's SHORT-FORM COLB's

(Yep there are 2 main facts about the "certifcation of live birth" the obama campaign put on the internet.

(1) It can't be verfied because it contains no hospital or doctors names. No signatures. Nothing that can be verfied by the American public.

(2) The strange fact that it was forged and yet Hawaii has indicated that some kind of record exists in Hawaii.

The video above proves it was forged as has been proven before. It seems there is a coverup that includes many people that can't afford for the "cat" to get out of the bag because it would be not just obama resigning or removed in disgrace but many other people going to prison for FRAUD.

I continue to ask, "where's the birth certificate" at work and elsewhere. It is making people think and question who obama is. Yesterday I was confronted by an individual who told me obama does not have to prove he has a birth certificate and then he said he has one.

I told him there are at least 5 different versions of the online short form colb and none of them can be verfied.

I also informed the individual that obama can't prove he is a US citizen because all he has is a index notation in Hawaii that indicates his name and sex.

I also informed the individual there are 5 different ways to get a birth certificate in Hawaii.

One of the ways is to prove the parents were married for at least 1 year prior to the birth and lived in Hawaii. A "birth certificate" then could be issued even if the baby was born OUTSIDE of the US!

Because obama's short form can't be verified as to how he obtained it and it has no hospital or doctors name to verify he was born in Hawaii, no one on earth can prove obama was born in Hawaii especially the usurper obama himself.

The individual got frustrated and asked me if I could prove I was a US citizen. I said yes, I have a birth certificate with a hospital and doctors name, signatures and seal.

My record can be verfied because my birth certificate states facts that can be "fact checked" and verified.

The individual I was talking started to make various excuse for obama such as maybe someone other than obama has altered his birth certificate.

I informed him also that obama has never claimed any of the five colb's online are his.

My point is I as others need to keep asking, "where's the birth certifivate".

There were many other people in the room "fact checking" what I said against what the obama supporter said.

Because I have the cahonas to speak out and ask "where's the birth certificate", there are people who when they see me instead of saying hello say, "where's the birth certificate". I am making people think and question obama's US citizenship because of the fact I have questioned who obama is and his orign.)
Story Reports

Monday, February 21, 2011

MLK Observance In Columbia, SC Had A Box To Conceal The Father Of His Country

The annual MLK observance at the state house in Columbia, SC had an interesting twist this year. The event is held on the north side steps of the statehouse. Prominent at that location is a large bronze statue of George Washington. This year a "box" to conceal the Father of His Country from view was constructed apparently so that participants would not be offended by his presence.

George Washington and Slavery

George Washington and slavery

George Washington and Slavery A message For President's Day

George Washington was born into a world in which slavery was accepted. He became a slave owner when his father died in 1743. At the age of eleven, he inherited ten slaves and 500 acres of land. When he began farming Mount Vernon eleven years later, at the age of 22, he had a work force of about 36 slaves. With his marriage to Martha Custis in 1759, 20 of her slaves came to Mount Vernon. After their marriage, Washington purchased even more slaves. The slave population also increased because the slaves were marrying and raising their own families. By 1799, when George Washington died, there were 316 slaves living on the estate.

Slaves played an integral role in Mount Vernon's history. Although little written documentation exists from the slaves themselves, much is known about their lives through primary documents left by Washington and visitors to Mount Vernon. The skilled and manual labor needed to run Mount Vernon was largely provided by slaves. Many of the working slaves were trained in crafts such as milling, coopering, blacksmithing, carpentry,and shoemaking. The others worked as house servants, boatmen, coachmen or field hands. Some female slaves were also taught skills, particularly spinning, weaving and sewing, while others worked as house servants or in the laundry, the dairy, or the kitchen. Many female slaves also worked in the fields. Almost three-quarters of the 184 working slaves at Mount Vernon worked in the fields, and of those, about 60% were women.

Food grown at Mount Vernon was distributed to the slaves and their families and to the Washingtons. Any surplus was sold at market. The slaves received their food rations weekly. Many slaves also kept their own gardens to supplement their diet. The slaves could sell their food at local markets to earn extra income. The slaves were also issued clothing once a year.

The work-day at Mount Vernon was from sunrise to sunset, with 2 hours off for meals. Sunday was a holiday. Slaves also received 3-4 days off at Christmas, and the Monday after Easter and Pentecost as holidays. If a slave was required to work a Sunday during harvest, Washington would allow them a day off later, and sometimes compensated them with pay.

George Washington's attitude toward slavery changed as he grew older. During the Revolution, as he and fellow patriots strove for liberty, Washington became increasingly conscious of the contradiction between this struggle and the system of slavery. By the time of his presidency, he seems to have believed that slavery was wrong and against the principles of the new nation.

As President, Washington did not lead a public fight against slavery, however, because he believed it would tear the new nation apart. Abolition had many opponents, especially in the South. Washington seems to have feared that if he took such a public stand, the southern states would withdraw from the Union (something they would do seventy years later, leading to the Civil War). He had worked too hard to build the country to risk tearing it apart.

Privately, however, Washington could -- and did -- lead by example. In his will, he arranged for all of the slaves he owned to be freed after the death of his wife, Martha. He also left instructions for the continued care and education of some of his former slaves, support and training for all of the children until they came of age, and continuing support for the elderly.

Washington's habit of extensive recordkeeping, such as his 1799 Slave Census, has helped Mount Vernon's historians research and interpret slave life on his five farms. Extensive archaeological excavation and research at Mount Vernon has also furthered our understanding of the large slave community that lived here.

In 1778, while Washington was at war, he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished to sell his slaves and "to get quit of negroes", since maintaining a large (and increasingly elderly) slave population was no longer economically efficient. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves", however, and because these slaves had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families, something which he had resolved not to do. Confronted with this dilemma, his plan to divest himself of slaves was dropped.

(I suggest people try to think "outside of the box" when it comes to George Washington.
George Washington should not be shunned or hidden. His treatment of slaves was honorable. Washington should not be dishonored by putting a box around his statue.

According to government statistics, 72 percent of African-American children are born to unmarried Mothers. The girls don't think they have to get married.

This is shameful and is something that should be addressed by the MLK observance. The MLK observance should think "out of the box" and work to free modern day African-American children that are born into the "slavery" of the mindset that its expected or normal for a son or daughter to be born illegitimate.) Story Reports

"While we can blame the government, history, slavery, poverty and a slew of other reasons for the state of our communities and the issues our children face, ultimately, the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of the parent in the mirror. And that's exactly where it should be." Kirsten West Savali

72 Percent of African-American Children Born to Unwed Mothers

After the war, Washington often privately expressed a dislike of the institution of slavery. In 1786, he wrote to a friend that "I never mean ... to possess another slave by purchase; it being among my first wishes to see some plan adopted, by which slavery in this Country may be abolished by slow, sure and imperceptible degrees." To another friend he wrote that "there is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do to see some plan adopted for the abolition" of slavery. He expressed moral support for plans by his friend the Marquis de Lafayette to emancipate slaves and resettle them elsewhere, but he did not assist him in the effort.

MLK was "caught in the act" by MLK closest friend Ralph Abernathy, King's hand-picked successor as president of S.C.L.C. from 1968 to 1976 The Rev Ralph David Abernathy should be honored on MLK day not MLK. If anybody should be "boxed" in it should be a statue of MLK.

Sunday, February 20, 2011

Baron von Steuben a community organizer with skill

Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus, Baron von Steuben (1730-94)

Prussian soldier who played an important role in improving the quality of the American Continental Army during the American War of Independence. Between 1746 and 1763 he served in the Prussian army under Frederick the Great, eventually reaching the rank of captain and serving for a time on the Prussian general staff during the Seven Years War.

At the end of the war in 1763, Steuben was retired from the Prussian army. He spent the next few years as Court Chamberlain to the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, gaining a knighthood and the title of Baron (Freiherr), but in 1777 he was forced to resign for reasons that are no longer clear. Whatever those reasons were, Steuben was unable to gain employment with a series of European powers. In Paris he met Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane, busily recruiting for the American cause, and managed to convince them that he was a lieutenant-general and enthusiastic revolutionary, rather than an unemployed ex-captain. Franklin and Deane gave him a letter of introduction, and he sailed for America.

He arrived in December 1777 to find Washington and his tattered army camped at Valley Forge. Despite his limited English, Steuben impressed Washington who asked him to examine the Continental soldiers. Steuben's report encouraged Washington to appoint him acting Inspector-General, an appointment confirmed by Congress in May 1778 when he was also given the rank of Major-General.

His work at Valley Forge was to turn the ragged Continentals into a far more professional and competent army. First he selected a model company, which he trained personally, although he eventually needed a translator for his orders. The members of this company were then able to spread his methods across the army. Those methods were intelligently modified from the Prussian models to make them better suit American conditions and the character of the American volunteer soldiers. This demonstrated itself in his willingness to explain the drills and manoeuvres he was teaching, something rather less likely to happen in Prussia, and to answer questions. The training he initiated appears to have been popular amongst the men at Valley Forge. He also initiated training in bayonet drill, an area where the British had demonstrated a great superiority and in which they were soon to be surprised. Steuben insisted on a higher standard of conduct amongst the Continental officers, also a theme of Washingtons. Steuben was eventually to succeed in this, apparently partly through his particularly impressive range of oaths, all but one of them in French or German.

Although Steuben was a first class organiser of training, he was less successful in other areas. At the start of 1781 he was in Virginia helping to supply Greene's army in the Carolinas. He was also raising Continental Regiments, whose presence in Virginia probably helped to convince Cornwallis not to pursue Greene out of North Carolina in February. After much persistent nagging Washington was persuaded to give him an independent command in Virginia in the spring of 1781 where Benedict Arnold was causing great damage for the British, but Steuben did not live up to the image he had created of himself and achieved little. He was even forced to flee from a British raid when his men refused to fight. His justified fame was based on his skills of organisation not on any battlefield victories.

His crucial role in moulding the Continental Army over the winter of 1777-78 was recognised after the war. Congress awarded him a large cash grant, the state of New York gave him a large land grant, and in 1790 he was also granted an annual income of $2500. He spent the last years of his life in retirement on his land in New York state.

(Baron von Steuben justified fame was based on his skills of organization not on any battlefield victories. It is true the key to any victory is organization.

Steuben was an organiser and trainer. The image he created of himself was built on his past achievements of his organizational skills. In other words he was a very good community organizer but not one who could live up to his and other own hype of himself.

This is similar to obama. Obama was a community organizer/trainer/fraud but is not capable of living up to his and others hype about his capabilities. Steuben was not a total failure but obama is.

Baron von Steuben was responsible for Washington's victories because he had trained the troops well.

Barron obama is responsible for the victories the Liberal democrates have had in congress.

Barron obama trained the liberal left troops well.

The problem is barron obama can't lead the troops he trained to victory because he lacks leadership skills necessary to do anything without being told what to do by people who themselves are inept or destructive.

Steuben was a patriot and obama is a traitor, a big difference in character.

In closing I would like to ask the question again, "where's the birth certificate"?) Story

Actions speak louder than words, and perhaps those actions of George Washington speak
best for von Steuben's character:

"I wish, to make use, of this last Moment of my public Life, to Signify in the strongest terms, my entire Approbation of your Conduct, and to express my Sense of the Obligations the public is under to you for your faithful, and Meritorious Services."
George Washington wrote these words in a letter to his friend Baron Von Steuben on December 23, 1783. It was the last letter he ever wrote as commander of the American forces and it was written on the day he resigned his commission as Commander in Chief to the Congress of the Confederation. The letter is at its home in Hohenzollern Castle in Germany.